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# Statistics For Dummies, 2nd Edition (For Dummies (Lifestyle))

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Find the standard deviation of all the x-values (call it) and the standard deviation of all the y-values (call it).

The temptation is to say, “Well, I knew Corn-e-stats corn was longer because its sample mean was 8.5 inches and Stat-o-sweet was only 7.5 inches on average. Why do I even need a confidence interval?” All those two numbers tell you is something about those 30 ears of corn sampled. You also need to factor in variation using the margin of error to be able to say something about the entire populations of corn. After delving into the process of how to find a p-value from a test statistic and understanding its significance in hypothesis testing, we now transition to a critical stage: making conclusions. To find the answer using the z-table, find where the row for 1.5 intersects with the column for 0.00; this value is 0.9332. The z-table shows only "less than" probabilities so it gives you exactly what you need for this question. Note: No probability is exactly at one single point, so:

If the p-value is really close to 0.05 (like 0.051 or 0.049), the results should be considered marginally ­significant — the decision could go either way. where t* is the critical value from the t-distribution with n1 + n2 – 2 degrees of freedom; n1 and n2 are the two sample sizes, respectively; and s1 and s2 are the two sample standard deviations. This t*-value is found on the following t-table by intersecting the row for df = n1 + n2 – 2 with the column for the confidence level you need, as indicated by looking at the last row of the table. Great Deal